Masterbatch basic knowledge

First, what is a masterbatch?
Color Masterbatch is also known as Color Masterbatch. Color Master Batch is a new colorant for polymer materials, also known as Pigment Preparation. It consists of three basic elements: pigments or dyes, carriers and additives. It is an aggregate obtained by uniformly loading an excess amount of pigments or dyes into a resin. It can be called a pigment concentration (Pigment Concentration). The coloring power is higher than the pigment itself. Simply put, a masterbatch is an aggregate made by uniformly loading an ultra-constant amount of a pigment or dye into a resin.
Second, what are the basic ingredients of masterbatch?
The basic composition of masterbatch is:
1. pigments or dyes
Pigments are divided into organic pigments and inorganic pigments Commonly used organic pigments are: phthalocyanine red, phthalocyanine blue, phthalocyanine green, fast red, macromolecule red, macromolecular yellow, permanent yellow, permanent purple, azo red Other commonly used inorganic pigments are: cadmium red, cadmium yellow, titanium dioxide, carbon black, red iron oxide, yellow iron oxide, etc.
2. Carrier
It is the matrix of masterbatch. The special masterbatch generally chooses the same resin as the product resin as the carrier, and the compatibility between the two is best, but at the same time, the fluidity of the carrier should also be considered.
3. Dispersing agent
To promote the uniform dispersion of pigments and no longer agglomerate, the melting point of the dispersant should be lower than the resin, have good compatibility with the resin, and have a good affinity with the pigment. The most commonly used dispersants are: polyethylene low molecular waxes, stearates.
4. Additives
Such as flame retardant, brightening, antibacterial, anti-static, anti-oxidation and other varieties, unless the customer requests, under normal circumstances does not contain the above additives in the masterbatch.
Third, what kind of color masterbatch and grade?
Color master classification methods are commonly used as follows:
According to carrier classification: such as PE masterbatch, PP masterbatch, ABS masterbatch, PVC masterbatch, EVA masterbatch and other classification according to purpose: such as injection masterbatch, blow masterbatch, spinning masterbatch and other varieties can be divided into Different levels, such as:
1. Advanced injection masterbatch:
For cosmetic packaging, toys, electrical enclosures and other advanced products.
2. Ordinary injection masterbatch:
For general daily plastic products, industrial containers and so on.
3. Advanced blown film masterbatch:
Used for blowing coloring of ultra-thin products.
4. Ordinary blown film masterbatch:
It is used for blow molding of general bags and woven bags.
5. Spinning masterbatch:
It is used for textile fiber spinning coloring. The pigment masterbatch has fine particles, high concentration, strong coloring power, good heat resistance and light resistance.
6. Low grade masterbatch:
It is used to manufacture low-grade products with low requirements on color quality, such as trash cans and low-grade containers.
7 , special masterbatch :
It is a masterbatch made from the same plastic as the carrier, based on the plastic type specified by the user for the product. Such as PP color masterbatch, ABS masterbatch were selected PP , ABS as a carrier.
General Color Masterbatch : A resin (usually a low melting point PE ) is also used as a carrier, but it may be suitable for coloration of other resins than its carrier resin.
, Universal Color Masterbatch
General color masterbatch is relatively simple and convenient, but the disadvantages are more, it is recommended that users choose a special color masterbatch.
The heat-resistance grade of the special masterbatch is generally compatible with the plastic used for the product, and it can be used safely at normal temperature. Only in the following circumstances will cause varying degrees of discoloration, one is the temperature exceeds the normal range, one is too long downtime.
9. Masterbatch has the following advantages over granulation :
9.1. Coloring products processing and once completed, to avoid heating of the colored granulated plastics, the quality of protection of plastic products is good.
Minimize the production process of plastic products.
Save a lot of energy
Fourth, why use masterbatch?
The use of masterbatch has the following advantages:
Better pigment dispersion in the product:
Masterbatch is an aggregate made by uniformly loading an ultra-constant pigment in a resin.
In the production process of masterbatch, the pigment must be refined to improve the dispersibility and coloring power of the pigment. The carrier of the special color masterbatch is the same as the plastic type of the product, and it has a good matchability. After heating and melting, the pigment particles can be well dispersed in the plastic of the product.
It helps to maintain the chemical stability of pigments:
When the pigment is used directly, the pigment will undergo water absorption and oxidation during the storage and use. When the pigment masterbatch is used, the resin carrier will separate the pigment from the air and moisture, and the quality of the pigment can be reduced for a long period of time. change.
3 to
ensure the stability of the color of the product:
The masterbatch particles are similar to the resin particles, and are more convenient and accurate in metering. When the mixture is mixed, it does not adhere to the container, and the mixture with the resin is also relatively uniform. Therefore, it is possible to ensure the stability of the added amount, thereby ensuring the stability of the color of the product.
Protect the health of operators:
Pigments are generally powdery, easy to fly when added and mixed, and will affect the health of operators when inhaled.
Keep the environment clean and uncontaminated:
6. The
process is simple, easy to change color, save time and raw materials:
     As the pigments directly contact the air during storage and use, moisture absorption, oxidation, clumping, etc. may occur. Direct use will cause color spots on the surface of the plastic products, the hue will be dark, the color will be easily faded, and the color will be mixed. Dust dust, affecting the health of operators. The masterbatch has undergone mechanical processing during the production process. The pigment has been refined, and the pigment and resin carrier and dispersant have been fully mixed to separate the pigment from air and moisture, thereby enhancing the weather resistance of the pigment and improving the pigment. The pigment's dispersibility and coloring power, bright hue. Since the color masterbatch and the resin particles are similar in shape, they are more convenient and accurate in metering, and do not adhere to the container when mixed, thereby saving the time for cleaning the container and the machine and the raw materials used for the cleaning.
Fifth, the use of masterbatch note:
1. How to use masterbatch?
The use of color masterbatch is very simple, just mix with the resin particles according to the specified proportion, and mix by hand.
The following issues should be noted in the operation of the device:
1.1. The injection molding machine or extruder mixing chamber generally has multiple temperature zones, and the temperature near the blanking port should be slightly higher. This is to make the color master melt quickly after entering the mixing chamber, with the plastic resin as soon as possible Mix evenly, which is conducive to the masterbatch pigment in the product in a good dispersion.
1.2. Appropriately apply back pressure to the injection molding machine. This can improve the mixing effect of the screw, facilitate the dispersion of the pigment, and the side effect of applying the back pressure is to slow down the injection speed.
1.3. The die temperature of the extruder is properly increased to increase the brightness of the product.
2. How to determine the proportion of masterbatch?
The basis for determining the proportion of masterbatch is to obtain a satisfactory coloring effect. As long as the surface of the product is evenly shaded and there are no streaks and spots, it can be recognized. The proportion of use of seven-color deer color masterbatch can be selected as follows:
1:100 Unless the equipment's kneading property is very good, the phenomenon of uneven pigment dispersion is likely to occur, and seven-color deer companies generally do not recommend customers to use this ratio.
However, due to price pressures, some customers are particularly interested in using this proportion of color masterbatch. The seven-color deer company thinks for its customers, and it also produces such a low proportion of concentrated color masterbatch, and the dispersibility of pigments generally meets the requirements.
1:50 For plastic products requiring general coloring, PE, PP color masters are more used. This ratio 1:33--1:25 is used for coloring higher demanding PO products, coloring requirements are lower or general ABS Products
1:20 for advanced plastic products, including PO, ABS, can be widely used in injection molding, blow molding, spinning and other processes
More than 1:20 is generally used for coloring high-grade cosmetics containers, and more commonly used for small injection molding machines
3. How to calculate the use cost of masterbatch?
When calculating the cost of color masterbatch, the weight of masterbatch itself should be deducted.
For example: Add 2 kg of masterbatch to 100 kg of plastic resin, this time the total weight is already 102 kg, assuming that the resin price is 10 yuan/kg, and the masterbatch price is 20 yuan/kg.
The increase in the cost of 102 kg of plastic products due to the use of masterbatch is:
The cost of using 2 kg (20 yuan/kg -10 yuan/kg) = 20 yuan to convert into 100 kg of plastic products due to the use of masterbatch is:
20 yuan / 102 kg × 100 kg = 19.61 yuan
4. Will using color masterbatch increase product cost?
In most cases this is the case. However, in some cases, the use of masterbatch is more economical than the use of toner, because the colorist can achieve a higher price pigment coloring effect through a combination of several lower-priced pigments.
Also consider the following two phenomena:
1. In many cases, the pigments used by plastic product manufacturers when using toners are not the most economical, but due to the lack of familiarity with pigments, repeated testing during color matching, waste of manpower and materials is very common. The use of masterbatch does not have this problem.
2. The coloring product and the coloring product are completely different, and their price is also higher. The higher price is often higher than the increase in the use of color masterbatch, so the color Mother can create "profit" instead. From this point of view, in some cases, the use of masterbatch is more economical than the use of toner.
5. Does the masterbatch require drying before use?
Masterbatch generally does not require drying and can be used directly, except for ABS and NY masterbatch, which should be dried according to conventional processes.
What is the retention period of masterbatch?
Masterbatch can be stored for a long time.
The pigment in the masterbatch is dispersed and fixed in the carrier resin and is in a closed state, and its quality does not change even if it is stored for a long time. However, it should be stored in a dry, cool environment
6 , can you use a few different color master preparation of color?
Qisei Deer Company often uses several color masters to prepare specific colors for small-volume customers. However, in the absence of guidance from the company's technical staff, customers can not make their own proposal to use several color masters in combination, and it is even more impossible to mix color masterbatches produced by different companies. Use to avoid incompatibility and loss.
Does using masterbatch affect the other properties of the product?
Some pigments have an effect on the flame retardant effect of the product. When used in flame retardant products, it should be pointed out to the masterbatch manufacturer.
Does the mold affect the use of the masterbatch?
In order to fully show the coloring effect of masterbatch, the mold must have corresponding quality, especially the surface must be very smooth.
Sixth, the common defects of masterbatch
1, in the sunlight, the product has a striped pigment band
This problem needs to be considered from two aspects: plastic physical and mechanical properties and plastic molding process:
1.1 The temperature of injection molding equipment is not controlled well, and the masterbatch cannot mix well with the resin after entering the mixing chamber.
1.2 The injection molding machine did not add a certain back pressure, and the mixing effect of the screw was not good.
1.3 The dispersibility of masterbatch is poor or the plasticization of the resin is not good.
The following adjustments can be made to the process: 1. The temperature of the mixing chamber is slightly increased by the part of the blank outlet 2. A certain back pressure is applied to the injection molding machine.
If the above adjustment is still not good, it may be the problem of dispersibility or matching of masterbatch and resin, and it should be resolved with the masterbatch manufacturer.
2, after using a certain masterbatch, the product appears to be more easily broken
This may be due to poor diffusion and miscibility caused by the poor quality of dispersants or auxiliaries used by the manufacturer, affecting the physical and mechanical properties of the product.
3, according to the proportion of color masterbatch used, the color is too dark (too shallow)
Although this issue is simple, there are many possibilities. Specifically:
3.1. Color masters have not been carefully tried, too little or too much pigment
3.2. Inaccurate metering at the time of use, and the phenomenon of random measurement by domestic enterprises, especially small and medium-sized enterprises
3.3. There is a problem with the matching of color masterbatch and resin, which may be due to the improper selection of the masterbatch carrier, or it may be that the manufacturer randomly changes the resin type.
3.4. Improper temperature of the machine, the masterbatch stays in the machine for a long time. Processing procedure: first check whether the resin type matches with the masterbatch and whether the measurement is accurate. Secondly, adjust the machine temperature or rotation speed. If there are still problems, the masterbatch manufacturer should be found. contact.
4, the same color masterbatch, resin and formula, different injection molding machine injection products why the color depth?
This is often the cause of the injection molding machine. Different injection molding machines may cause differences in the mechanical conditions due to differences in manufacturing, use time, or maintenance conditions, and in particular, the difference in the degree of closeness between the heating elements and the cartridge, so that the dispersion state of the masterbatch in the cartridge is also different. The phenomenon will appear.
5. After changing the resin of another brand, the color of the same masterbatch and formula has changed. Why?
Different grades of resin have different density and melt index, so the performance of the resin will be different, and the compatibility with the masterbatch will also be different, resulting in a color change, generally speaking, as long as its density and melt index difference is not Large, then the difference in color will not be too much, you can correct the color by adjusting the amount of color masterbatch.
6. Does the migration of pigment in the storage process affect the quality of the product?
Some masterbatch pigments (or dyes) are very high, and in this case migration is normal. In particular, color masterbatches that incorporate dyes can cause serious migration. However, this does not affect the quality of the product, because after the masterbatch is injected into the product, the pigment is at a normal color concentration in the product.
7. Why are some injection products poorly glossy?
There are several possibilities:
7.1. Injection molding machine nozzle temperature is too low
7.2. Poor mold finish of injection molding machine
7.3. Product molding cycle is too long
7.4. Too much titanium dioxide in masterbatch
7.5. The dispersion of masterbatch is not good
8. After some time, some plastic products will fade.
The basic pigment used by the manufacturer is of poor quality and drifting occurs.
9, Why the color difference is particularly prone ABS masterbatch?
The different grades of ABS produced in various countries have a large color difference. Even if the ABS of the same brand number is used, there may be color differences in each batch of lot numbers. Of course, color differences may also occur after color masterbatch is used. This is due to the characteristics of ABS. There is no complete solution at the international level. However, this color difference is generally not serious.
When users use ABS masterbatch, they must pay attention to this characteristic of ABS.
VII. Appendix: Performance of Pigments
1. Heat resistance
, PE pigment temperature 160-180 degrees Celsius
, PS pigment temperature 250-280 degrees Celsius
The pigments of PP , PA and PET are resistant to temperatures above 280 degrees
It is generally required that the heat resistance time of the pigment is 4-10 minutes. In general, the higher the use temperature, the shorter the heat resistance time. Indigo blue pigment temperature 325 degrees Celsius, 10 minutes color change
The pigment migration resistance refers to the fact that colored plastic products and other solids, liquids, gases, etc., in the state of long-term contact with the material or work in a specific environment, may have physical and chemical effects with the above substances, manifested as pigments from the plastic interior Move to the free surface of the article or migrate into adjacent plastic or solvent.
Resistance migration rating
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level
Serious Migrations Significant Migrations Migrations Minor Migrations No Migrations
Most inorganic pigments have good lightfastness.
Weather resistance refers to the color stability of a pigment under natural conditions.
Titanium Divided into: Anatase ( A ) Titanium Dioxide Rutile ( R ) Titanium Dioxide
Titanium dioxide can improve hiding power, weather resistance, fade resistance, etc. ~~~
When the concentration of titanium dioxide is low, the whiteness of PP increases with the increase of its content. When the concentration exceeds 1.5% , the whiteness no longer rises. From 1% to 8% , the whiteness increases by 2.8% , indicating that it exceeds a certain concentration. After the range, increasing the amount of titanium dioxide does not improve the whiteness. In order to further improve whiteness, fluorescent whitening agents can be used, and only a very small amount of fluorescent whitening agents can significantly increase the tinting strength of titanium dioxide.
Titanium dioxide, alias: titanium dioxide
Titanium dioxide allows plastics to efficiently scatter visible light to impart whiteness, brightness, and opacity.
concentration of titanium dioxide in PP\\ ABS is 1% ; in PVC , it is 4% ; as the amount of titanium dioxide increases, the hiding power gradually increases, and when the concentration is greater than 8% , it tends to balance.
Under normal circumstances, the finer the titanium dioxide particles, the higher the coloring power and the stronger the hiding power.
Cadmium yellow has strong coloring power, excellent light and weather resistance, no migration, no bleeding (toxic paint). This product can be used as a plastic yellow colorant, its bright color, excellent light resistance, heat resistance, solvent resistance, water resistance and alkali resistance is also good, but not acid, coloring, hiding power is not too high.

Ultramarine has the function of whitening and tinting. It can remove yellow light from white products.

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